A sophisticated slide mode controller of microgrid system load frequency control under false data injection attack and actuator time delay

Mohamad Issa Ibraheem, Mehdi Edrisi, Hassan Haes Alhelou, Mehdi Gholipour, Amer Al-Hinai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Load frequency control (LFC) is a crucial application in modern power systems as it ensures the system frequency remains within an acceptable range through demand control and active power generation. However, as information and communication technology (ICT) becomes more prevalent in power system, there are both opportunities for improved reliability and efficiency as well as potential security threats. This paper proposes an LFC approach that takes into account the simultaneous occurrence of false data injection (FDI) attacks on the sensor-controller side, disturbances in the states of the system and time delays in the controller-actuator side. To tackle these challenges, a slide mode observer is utilized to estimate system states and detect cyber-attack signals as an extra virtual state. Subsequently, a cyber-attack-resilient predictor slide mode controller is designed to establish a robust control law capable of overcoming system challenges, when all system states are not within reach. Therefore, the robust control law is designed based on the estimated states, cyber signal and measured system output. By integrating these techniques, the proposed methodology offers a promising solution to enhance the resilience and performance of power system faced with cybersecurity threats. It improves the response speed of the system and minimizes the maximum overshoot compared to some published resilience control laws, thereby ensuring secure and reliable load frequency control. Additionally, reducing the number of sensors in the system helps to reduce overall costs. Finally, the performance of the controller is also verified in real-time using the OPAL-RT simulator testbed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2117-2126
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Cyber-Attack
  • Cyberattack
  • Delay effects
  • Delays
  • False data injection
  • Frequency control
  • Load frequency control
  • Mathematical models
  • Microgrid
  • Power system stability
  • Secondary controller
  • Slide mode control predictor
  • Sliding observer
  • Stability criteria
  • Time delay

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