The dengue virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NS5, and the protease/helicase, NS3, are multidomain proteins that have been shown to interact both in vivo and in vitro. A hyperphosphorylated form of NS5 that does not interact with NS3 has been detected in the nuclei of virus-infected cells, presumably as the result of the action of a functional nuclear localization sequence within the interdomain region of NS5 (residues 369-405). In this study, it is shown by using the yeast two-hybrid system that the C-terminal region of NS3 (residues 303-618) interacts with the N-terminal region of NS5 (residues 320-368). Further, it is shown that this same region of NS5 is also recognized by the cellular nuclear import receptor importin-β. The interaction between NS5 and importin-β and competition by NS3 with the latter for the same binding site on NS5 were confirmed by pull-down assays. The direct interaction of importin-β with NS5 has implications for the mechanism by which this normally cytoplasmic protein may be targetted to the nucleus.