A review on travel behaviour modelling in dynamic traffic simulation models for evacuations

Adam J. Pel, Michiel C.J. Bliemer, Serge P. Hoogendoorn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

237 Citations (Scopus)


Dynamic traffic simulation models are frequently used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. This contribution reviews the different (mathematical) model formulations underlying these traffic simulation models used in evacuation studies and the behavioural assumptions that are made. The appropriateness of these behavioural assumptions is elaborated on in light of the current consensus on evacuation travel behaviour, based on the view from the social sciences as well as empirical studies on evacuation behaviour. The focus lies on how travellers' decisions are predicted through simulation regarding the choice to evacuate, departure time choice, destination choice, and route choice. For the evacuation participation and departure time choice we argue in favour of the simultaneous approach to dynamic evacuation demand prediction using the repeated binary logit model. For the destination choice we show how further research is needed to generalize the current preliminary findings on the location-type specific destination choice models. For the evacuation route choice we argue in favour of hybrid route choice models that enable both following instructed routes and en-route switches. Within each of these discussions, we point at current limitations and make corresponding suggestions on promising future research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-123
Number of pages27
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Departure time choice
  • Destination choice
  • Dynamic traffic simulation
  • Evacuation
  • Route choice
  • Travel behaviour

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