A review on the effect of fly ash, RHA and slag on the synthesizing of coal bottom ash (CBA) based geopolymer

Nor Farhana Binti Ab Gulam, A. B. M. Amrul Kaish, Abir Mahmood, Sudharshan N. Raman, Maslina Jamil, Roszilah Hamid

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther


Geopolymerization is widely used in the construction sector for its characteristics of strong compressive strengths, quick hardening, long-term durability, fire resistance, and erosion resistance. This paper has gone through the geopolymer performances utilizing coal bottom ash (CBA), CBA blended with fly ash (FA), CBA mixed together with slag, and CBA with rice husk ash (RHA). CBA shows a better performance than FA in the compressive strength. This paper has discovered several elements that influence geopolymerization, the curing time, the curing temperature, the silicate and hydroxide ratio, and grinding CBA surfaces. The combination of CBA and RHA is suitable for lightweight concrete, as the range of the volumetric weight is within 1192 kg/m3 to 1655 kg/m3. The slump result decreases, as the ratio of CBA and slag increases. Slag particles are uneven in shape, which increases water consumption and leads to a honeycombed structure, whereas CBA particles are spherical in shape, which enhances workability.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences
PublisherMDPI AG
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2021
EventInternational Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences 2021 - online
Duration: 15 Oct 202131 Oct 2021
Conference number: 2nd

Publication series

NameEngineering Proceedings
PublisherMDPI AG
ISSN (Print)2673-4591


ConferenceInternational Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences 2021
Abbreviated titleASEC 2021
Internet address


  • CBA-based geopolymer
  • fly ash
  • geopolymer
  • rice husk ash
  • slag
  • water glass solution (WGS)

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