A review of candidate urinary biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder

Lv Wang, Manya T. Angley, Jacobus P. Gerber, Michael J. Sorich

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Context: Autism is a complex, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition with a strong genetic component potentially impacted by various environmental factors influencing susceptibility. There are no reliable laboratory tests available to confirm an autism diagnosis. 

Objective: To examine the published literature and identify putative urinary biomarkers of autism. 

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic bibliographic databases. 

Results: Putative autism biomarkers were identified that could be categorized according to the key theories that exist regarding the etiology of autism: gastrointestinal factors, immune dysregulation, heavy metal toxicity, neurotransmitter abnormalities, and oxidative stress. C

onclusion: There is scope for specific urinary biomarkers to be useful for identification of autistic metabolic phenotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)537-552
Number of pages16
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Etiology
  • gastrointestinal factors
  • heavy metal toxicity
  • immune dysregulation
  • neurotransmitters
  • oxidative stress

Cite this