A process evaluation protocol for examining the impact of instructions for correct use of child car seats designed through a consumer-driven process and evaluated in a field-based randomised controlled trial

Julie Brown, Jane Elkington, Kate Hunter, Judith L. Charlton, Lynne E. Bilston, Andrew Hayen, Lisa Keay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The incorrect use of child car seats is common, with significant negative effects on crash protection for child passengers. There is currently little evidence for effective, practical countermeasures for incorrect use. The provision of clear and comprehensible materials on correct use supplied with restraints at the point of sale could be highly cost-effective and achieve similar benefits to restraint-fitting services or hands-on training; however, routinely supplied instructions in their current form are frequently difficult to understand. We are conducting a randomised controlled trial of the consumer-driven redesign of instructional materials, consisting of an instruction sheet, swing tags and online training videos. This paper presents the protocol that will be used in an innovate process evaluation that will use the primary outcome of overall serious misuse assessed at six months, together with a survey and semi-structured interviews to determine fidelity, dose and outcomes for all intervention participants. The study will assess intervention delivery and external factors that may impact the effectiveness of the intervention, including experience, health literacy, confidence and attitudes. When it has been conducted, this process evaluation will provide enhanced understanding of the mechanisms through which the intervention works or not, aspects of the implementation process key to success of the intervention and insight into how external factors influence the success of the intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4508
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2020


  • Behaviour theory
  • Child restraints
  • Injury
  • Misuse
  • Randomised trial

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