A pilot study on geometrical uncertainties for intra ocular cancers in radiotherapy

Rachitha Antony, Alan Herschtal, Stephen Todd, Claire Phillips, Annette Haworth

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A system for stabilising and monitoring eye movements for linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy associated with the mobile eye, the Eye Tracker, was developed. Whilst the Eye Tracker design is based on a previously reported system, the purpose of this study was to confirm that the modified version can be used with clinically acceptable treatment margins. We report the estimates of the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye motion based on data from 12 consecutive patients treated with the Eye Tracker system in place. Patients were immobilised in a head and neck mask and were required to fixate on a light source. A camera system monitored eye movements relative to CT simulation baseline measurements. The Exactrac system (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany) combined with the Varian TrueBeamSTx (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) confirmed pre- and intra-treatment setup of the head position. Displacement/rotation of the image of the pupil/iris was determined in the lateral and superior-inferior directions using a video display. A standard margin equation was applied to estimate the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye movement. The average displacement in both directions was 0.1–0.2 mm (0.36 mm SD). All patients maintained a position within 1 mm of the intended position during treatment. Based on a Bayesian estimation of the systematic and treatment errors, accounting for displacements in two-planes and a standard deviation of the penumbral width of 1.3 mm, the estimated margins to achieve coverage of the GTV with the 95% isodose in 90% of patients was found to be less than 1 mm. Small random and systematic uncertainties due to inter- and intra-fraction movement of the eye were achieved with the Eye Tracker. Whilst the estimated margins are small (<1 mm) they need to be considered in addition to contouring and treatment delivery uncertainties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-439
Number of pages7
JournalAustralasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Choroidal melanoma
  • Geometrical uncertainties
  • Margin calculation
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery

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