A Phase I Randomized Clinical Trial of Candidate Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 Vaccine MVA.HIVA Administered to Gambian Infants

Muhammed Olanrewaju Afolabi, Jorjoh Ndure, Abdoulie Drammeh, Fatoumatta Darboe, Shams Rony Mehedi, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Nicola Borthwick, Antony Black, Gwen Ambler, Grace C. John-Stewart, Marie Reilly, Tomáš Hanke, Katie L. Flanagan

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Abstract

Background:A vaccine to decrease transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during breast-feeding would complement efforts to eliminate infant HIV-1 infection by antiretroviral therapy. Relative to adults, infants have distinct immune development, potentially high-risk of transmission when exposed to HIV-1 and rapid progression to AIDS when infected. To date, there have been only three published HIV-1 vaccine trials in infants.Trial Design:We conducted a randomized phase I clinical trial PedVacc 001 assessing the feasibility, safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of candidate vaccine MVA.HIVA administered intramuscularly to 20-week-old infants born to HIV-1-negative mothers in The Gambia.Methods:Infants were followed to 9 months of age with assessment of safety, immunogenicity and interference with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines. The trial is the first stage of developing more complex prime-boost vaccination strategies against breast milk transmission of HIV-1.Results:From March to October 2010, 48 infants (24 vaccine and 24 no-treatment) were enrolled with 100% retention. The MVA.HIVA vaccine was safe with no difference in adverse events between vaccinees and untreated infants. Two vaccine recipients (9%) and no controls had positive ex vivo interferon-γ ELISPOT assay responses. Antibody levels elicited to the EPI vaccines, which included diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and oral poliovirus, reached protective levels for the vast majority and were similar between the two arms.Conclusions:A single low-dose of MVA.HIVA administered to 20-week-old infants in The Gambia was found to be safe and without interference with the induction of protective antibody levels by EPI vaccines, but did not alone induce sufficient HIV-1-specific responses. These data support the use of MVA carrying other transgenes as a boosting vector within more complex prime-boost vaccine strategies against transmission of HIV-1 and/or other infections in this age group.Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00982579 The Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR2008120000904116.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere78289
Number of pages10
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes

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