A novel phosphate amperometric nanobiosensor, based on an intimate integration of pyruvate oxidase (PyOx) and its cofactors, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), with a highly ordered gold nanowires array (AuNWA) has been developed. The successful integration of PyOx and the co-factors, via crosslinking with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (GLA), onto the AuNWA was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The resulting nanobiosensor achieved a detection limit of 0.1 µM, a linear concentration range of 12.5–1000 µM, and a sensitivity of 140.3 µA mM−1 cm−2. Notably, the incorporation of the AuNWA reduced the required PyOx concentration by 70–120 fold and the presence of common interferants, such as chloride, sulfate, fluoride, nitrite and nitrate ions did not interfere with phosphate detection. Furthermore, the nanobiosensor demonstrated a very high stability with repeated use over two weeks and was successfully used for the determination of phosphate in water samples with an average recovery of 96.6±4.9%.
- Gold nanowires array
- Pyruvate oxidase