A Novel GPPAS Model: Guiding the Implementation of Antimicrobial Stewardship in Primary Care Utilising Collaboration between General Practitioners and Community Pharmacists

Sajal K. Saha, Karin Thursky, David C.M. Kong, Danielle Mazza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Interprofessional collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) is central to implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes in primary care. This study aimed to design a GP/pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship (GPPAS) model for primary care in Australia. An exploratory study design was followed that included seven studies conducted from 2017 to 2021 for the development of the GPPAS model. We generated secondary and primary evidence through a systematic review, a scoping review, a rapid review, nationwide surveys of Australian GPs and CPs including qualitative components, and a pilot study of a GPPAS submodel. All study evidence was synthesised, reviewed, merged, and triangulated to design the prototype GPPAS model using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety theoretical framework. The secondary evidence provided effective GPPAS interventions, and the primary evidence identified GP/CP interprofessional issues, challenges, and future needs for implementing GPPAS interventions. The framework of the GPPAS model informed five GPPAS implementation submodels to foster implementation of AMS education program, antimicrobial audits, diagnostic stewardship, delayed prescribing, and routine review of antimicrobial prescriptions, through improved GP–CP collaboration. The GPPAS model could be used globally as a guide for GPs and CPs to collaboratively optimise antimicrobial use in primary care. Implementation studies on the GPPAS model and submodels are required to integrate the GPPAS model into GP/pharmacist interprofessional care models in Australia for improving AMS in routine primary care.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1158
Number of pages23
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • GP-pharmacist collaboration
  • implementation model
  • primary care

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