A novel and facile liquid whistle hydrodynamic cavitation reactor to produce submicron multiple emulsions

Siah Ying Tang, Manickam Sivakumar

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Ferrous fumarate, [C4H2FeO4] is widely utilized in the effective treatments and prevention of iron deficiency anemia. But, its administration has been oftentimes linked with quite a few side effects than ferric products. To overcome the side effects, multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion formulations had been proposed as a new drug delivery system for the controlled release of entrapped active iron compound. In this study, high-pressure liquid whistle hydrodynamic cavitation reactor has been developed to produce highly stable W/O/W multiple emulsions containing Ferrous Fumarate in submicron scale (∼600 nm) with the droplet-size distribution polydispersity index in the narrow regime (0.35-0.40). The microscopic observations confirmed that that the physical stability of the W/O/W emulsions was increased significantly with operating pressure and number of emulsification passes. Looking at the potential for scale-up, this could be a promising technique to produce multiple emulsions incorporated with active constituents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-167
Number of pages13
JournalAIChE Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Colloidal phenomena
  • Ferrous fumarate
  • Formulation
  • Hydrodynamic cavitation
  • Iron encapsulation
  • Submicron multiple emulsion

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