A nontoxic bifunctional (anti)solvent as digestive-ripening agent for high-performance perovskite solar cells

Yikai Yun, Fangfang Wang, Hongyan Huang, Yinyu Fang, Sizhou Liu, Wenchao Huang, Zhengchun Cheng, You Liu, Yezhou Cao, Mei Gao, Lin Zhu, Lin Wang, Tianshi Qin, Wei Huang

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27 Citations (Scopus)


The preparation of high-quality perovskite films is important for achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The effective balance between solvent and antisolvent is an essential factor for regulating high-quality perovskite film during the spin-coating and thermal-annealing steps. In this work, a greener, nonhalogenated, nontoxic bifunctional (anti)solvent, methyl benzoate (MB), is developed not only as an antisolvent to rapidly generate crystal seeds at the perovskite spin-coating step, but also as a digestive-ripening solvent for the perovskite precursors, which can prevent the loss of organic components during the thermal-annealing stage and effectively suppress the formation of miscellaneous lead halide phases. As a result, this novel bifunctional (anti)solvent is employed in planar n–i–p PSCs for engineering high-quality perovskite layers and thus achieving a power conversion efficiency up to 22.37% with negligible hysteresis and >1300 h stability. Moreover, due to the high boiling point and low-volatility characteristic of MB, high-performance PSCs are achieved reproducibly at different operating temperatures (22–34 °C). Therefore, this developed bifunctional solvent system can provide a promising platform toward globally upscaling and commercializing PSCs in all seasons and regions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1907123
Number of pages9
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2020


  • antisolvents
  • digestive ripening
  • methyl benzoate
  • perovskites
  • solvents
  • thermal annealing

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