In this article we demonstrate a versatile method for the generation of patterned protein films by encapsulation in arrays of the lipids, octadecylamine (ODA, cationic), and arachidic acid (AA, anionic). A simple 2 × 2 array of ODA and AA was vacuum deposited on different substrates using appropriate masks. Thereafter, the enzymes pepsin and fungal protease as well as the heme-proteins cytochrome c and hemoglobin were encapsulated in the different elements of the array by sequential immersion (combined with judicious masking) of the array elements in the different protein solutions. The proteins are incorporated into the lipid elements by electrostatic interaction between charged amino acid residues on the protein surface and charged functional groups in the lipid matrix. This procedure leads to spatially distinct regions of the different proteins on one substrate and shows promise for single-chip multianalyte immunoassay/multiplex, high-throughput biosensor and catalysis applications. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to monitor the incorporation of the proteins in the different elements of the array as well as to ascertain whether intermixing of the proteins in a particular array element had occurred. The heme-protein composite regions were further characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy.
- Patterned protein films