Prediction of solvent diffusion and evaporation rate in the initial days after construction of a sprayed seal is of special concern for pavement performance assessment. It is still a major challenge as solvent evaporation is a very complicated process. In this study, laboratory tests were conducted on bitumen-solvent binder films, under different experimental conditions and varying solvent properties. A solution of Fick’s diffusion equation was then used to calculate solvent diffusion coefficient (D) values for the initial 7 days. While a strong correlation was found between D and solvent viscosity as well as D and solvent distillation range, no relationship was found between D and solvent aniline point nor aromatic content. These findings were utilised in developing a multiple linear regression (MLR) diffusion model for the initial 7 days of evaporation. The evaluation of the model indicated close agreement between the predictions and experimental values (R 2= 0.95). The model enables road agencies to predict solvent diffusion and residual solvent for the early life of a sprayed seal without needing to conduct extensive experiments thereby saving time and labour cost. Accurate prediction of residual solvent via the developed model will further ensure long-term performance of sprayed seals.
- chip seal
- performance prediction and evaluation
- residual solvent
- Sprayed seal