A new brain-computer interface design using fuzzy ARTMAP

Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Raveendran Paramesran, Shogo Nishida, Naoki Saiwaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a new brain-computer interface (BCI) design using fuzzy ARTMAP (FA) neural network, as well as an application of the design. The objective of this BCI-FA design is to classify the best three of the five available mental tasks for each subject using power spectral density (PSD) values of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. These PSD values are extracted using the Wiener-Khinchine and autoregressive methods. Ten experiments employing different triplets of mental tasks are studied for each subject. The findings show that the average BCI-FA outputs for four subjects gave less than 6% of error using the best triplets of mental tasks identified from the classification performances of FA. This implies that the BCI-FA can be successfully used with a tri-state switching device. As an application, a proposed tri-state Morse code scheme could be utilized to translate the outputs of this BCI-FA design into English letters. In this scheme, the three BCI-FA outputs correspond to a dot and a dash, which are the two basic Morse code alphabets and a space to denote the end (or beginning) of a dot or a dash. The construction of English letters using this tri-state Morse code scheme is determined only by the sequence of mental tasks and is independent of the time duration of each mental task. This is especially useful for constructing letters that are represented as multiple dots or dashes. This combination of BCI-FA design and the tri-state Morse code scheme could be developed as a communication system for paralyzed patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-148
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Assistive technology
  • Brain-computer interface (BCI)
  • EEG
  • Fuzzy ARTMAP (FA)
  • Paralyzed patients
  • Spectral analysis
  • Tri-state Morse code

Cite this