A national survey of practicing psychologists' use and attitudes toward homework in psychotherapy

Nikolaos Kazantzis, Georgios K. Lampropoulos, Frank P. Deane

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)


Homework assignments have been studied extensively in psychotherapy research, but there is little data on the way in which homework is transferred to clinical practice. A survey was conducted of 827 practicing psychologists nationwide regarding their use and attitudes toward homework. Overall, 68% of the present sample indicated that they "often" or "almost always" used homework assignments. Factor analysis revealed that practitioners have a range of attitudes that can be classified as reflecting the notion that homework has (a) a negative impact on in-session therapeutic work and (b) a positive effect on therapy outcomes. More positive attitudes were reported among those with a cognitive-behavioral theoretical orientation. Nevertheless, the use of homework among psychodynamic/analytic practitioners reported in the present sample was unexpected and suggests that theoretical and empirical work is required to examine homework's effects in a range of psychotherapy approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)742-748
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Homework assignments
  • Practitioner survey
  • Psychotherapy

Cite this