A multilevel model of transformational leadership, affect, and creative process behavior in work teams

March L To, Herman H M Tse, Neal M Ashkanasy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)


We develop a multilevel model to explain how affect and transformational leadership (TFL) influence team creative process behavior. We theorize, in particular, that a dual-level model of TFL, which incorporates both individual-focused TFL (addressing the individual differences of team members) and group-focused TFL (addressing the team as a whole) underlies affect–creativity relationships. We argue moreover that these effects exist across three conceptual levels: (1) within-person, (2) interpersonal, and (3) group. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical implications and limitations of our model and suggest potential avenues for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)543-556
Number of pages14
JournalLeadership Quarterly
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • affect
  • creativity
  • transformational leadership
  • multilevel analysis

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