A model of chlorpyrifos distribution and its biochemical effects on the liver and kidneys of rats

E. M. Tanvir, R. Afroz, M. A.Z. Chowdhury, S. H. Gan, N. Karim, M. N. Islam, M. I. Khalil

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Abstract

This study investigated the main target sites of chlorpyrifos (CPF), its effect on biochemical indices, and the pathological changes observed in rat liver and kidney function using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Adult female Wistar rats (n = 12) were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one test group; n = 6 each). The test group received CPF via oral gavage for 21 days at 5 mg/kg daily. The distribution of CPF was determined in various organs (liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, ovary, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle), urine and stool samples using GCMS. Approximately 6.18% of CPF was distributed in the body tissues, and the highest CPF concentration (3.80%) was found in adipose tissue. CPF also accumulated in the liver (0.29%), brain (0.22%), kidney (0.10%), and ovary (0.03%). Approximately 83.60% of CPF was detected in the urine. CPF exposure resulted in a significant increase in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels, a significant reduction in total protein levels and an altered lipid profile. Oxidative stress due to CPF administration was also evidenced by a significant increase in liver malondialdehyde levels. The detrimental effects of CPF on kidney function consisted of a significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels. Liver and kidney histology confirmed the observed biochemical changes. In conclusion, CPF bioaccumulates over time and exerts toxic effects on animals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)991-1004
Number of pages14
JournalHuman and Experimental Toxicology
Volume35
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • biochemical parameters
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • distribution model
  • histopathology
  • oxidative stress

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