A mixed method approach to Ways of Thinking

Shane Costello, Esther May Roodenburg, John Roodenburg

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractpeer-review


Higher order factors and hierarchical structures are foundational to the study of individual differences. However higher order factors inevitably explain less variance (often around 60%) than the lower order constructs and have a lower predictive validity (Reynolds and Clark, 2001). By transposing the data matrix, hierarchical structures formed by types of people (rather than composites of variables) can be examined. Using transposed principle components analysis (tPCA) with the Ways of Thinking instrument, higher order types of people were examined. Integrating Roodenburg’s (2014) participants linked the results to her qualitative typology thereby allowing for greater explanatory power of the person-centred types. The tPCA method explained 95% of the variance in the data. Using tPCA derived person-centred types, a discriminant function analysis was conducted, which found that 94.3% of cases could be correctly classified according to their Ways of Thinking facet scores. Further research is recommended in refining the person-centred methodology.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014
EventAustralian Conference on Personality and Individual Differences 2014 - Travelodge Hotel, Newcastle, Australia
Duration: 28 Nov 201429 Nov 2014
Conference number: 12th


ConferenceAustralian Conference on Personality and Individual Differences 2014
Abbreviated titleACPID 2014


  • Cognitive style
  • Personality
  • Instrument development

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