A lack of antibody formation against inactivated influenza virus after aerosol vaccination in presence or absence of adjuvantia

Eveline D. De Geus, Daphne A. Van Haarlem, Okti N. Poetri, J. J.Sjaak De Wit, Lonneke Vervelde

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16 Citations (Scopus)


In the poultry industry, infections with avian influenza virus (AIV) can result in significant economic losses. The risk and the size of an outbreak might be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine that would be used for rapid intervention during an outbreak should be safe to use, highly effective after a single administration and be suitable for mass application. A vaccine that could be applied by spray or aerosol would be suitable for mass application, but respiratory applied inactivated influenza is poorly immunogenic and needs to be adjuvanted. We chose aluminum OH, chitosan, cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B), and Stimune as adjuvant for an aerosolized vaccine with inactivated H9N2. Each adjuvant was tested in two doses. None of the adjuvanted vaccines induced AIV-specific antibodies after single vaccination, measured 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by aerosol, in contrast to the intramuscularly applied vaccine. The aerosolized vaccine did enter the chickens' respiratory tract as CT-B-specific serum antibodies were detected after 1 week in chickens vaccinated with the CT-B-adjuvanted vaccine. Chickens showed no adverse effects after the aerosol vaccination based on weight gain and clinical signs. The failure to detect AIV-specific antibodies might be due to the concentration of the inactivated virus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-147
Number of pages5
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjuvant
  • Aerosol vaccination
  • Avian influenza virus
  • Inactivated vaccine
  • Mucosa
  • WIV

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