A lab-to-fab study toward roll-to-roll fabrication of reproducible Perovskite solar cells under ambient room conditions

Dechan Angmo, Giovanni DeLuca, Andrew D. Scully, Anthony S.R. Chesman, Aaron Seeber, Chuantian Zuo, Doojin Vak, Udo Bach, Mei Gao

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40 Citations (Scopus)


The low power-conversion efficiency (PCE) and reproducibility reported to date for roll-to-roll (R2R)-fabricated perovskite solar cells (PSCs) results from difficulty in controlling perovskite film quality. Here, we present a systematic comparison of the hot-deposition method, which induces crystal-growth-driven (CGD) film formation, and the anti-solvent method, which induces nucleation-driven (ND) film formation, for one-step perovskite film formation. Perovskite films produced by the two methods show markedly different micro-structural and optoelectronic properties; however, PCEs of CGD-type PSCs are only marginally lower than those of ND-type PSCs. Importantly, the average performance of PSCs incorporating a CGD-type perovskite layer is independent of humidity during fabrication and displays improved stability and reproducibility, prompting further investigation of upscaling potential. R2R-produced PSCs on plastic substrate with four slot-die-coated functional layers show superior reproducibility and micro-structural, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic properties comparable with those of glass-based PSCs, indicating excellent promise for translation to a manufacturing process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100293
Number of pages19
JournalCell Reports Physical Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2021


  • ambient
  • anti-solvent
  • crystallization
  • flexible
  • hot deposition
  • perovskite solar cells
  • reproducibility
  • roll to roll
  • slot die
  • stability

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