A hospital based surveillance of metallo-beta-lactamase producing gram negative bacteria in Nepal by imipenem-EDTA disk method

Pratigya Thapa, Dinesh Bhandari, Dhiraj Shrestha, Hiramani Parajuli, Prakash Chaudhary, Jyoti Amatya, Ritu Amatya

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Background: A rising threat of the rapid spread of acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among major Gram-negative pathogens is a matter of public health concern worldwide. Hence, for a low income nation like Nepal, surveillance data on MBL producing clinical isolates via a cost effective technique is necessary to prevent their dissemination as well as formulation and regulation of antimicrobial stewardship policy. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Nepal Medical College, Kathmandu from May to October, 2014 to assess the prevalence of MBL production among ceftazidime-resistant Gram-negative rods (GNRs) isolates. The samples were processed according to standard microbiological procedure following the Manual of clinical Microbiology. Isolated GNRs were subjected to susceptibility testing against the selected panel of antibiotics by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method and interpretation made in conformity with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Ceftazidime-resistant isolates were subjected to the detection of MBL production by imipenem - EDTA combined disc (CD) method. Results: Among the Gram-negative isolates, 5.80% (21/362) were found to be MBL positive with Acinetobacter spp. showing the highest prevalence i.e. 85.71% (18/21), followed by P. aeruginosa i.e. 14.29% (3/21). None of the other cefazidime resistant gram negative bacteria tested were found to be positive for MBL production with all the positive isolates determined to be Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a higher rate of resistance among P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. to a wide variety of antibiotic categories with an additional burden of MBL production within them, warranting a need for strict surveillance and rapid detection of MBL production among the GNRs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number322
Number of pages6
JournalBMC Research Notes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Ceftazidime-resistant Gram-negative rods
  • Metallo-beta-lactamase
  • Surveillance

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