In this Article, we report the synthesis of Ln3+ (Yb3+, Tm3+)-doped BiPO4/BiVO4 nanocomposite photocatalyst that shows efficient photocatalytic activity under UV-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) illumination. Incorporation of upconverting Ln3+ ion pairs in BiPO4 nanocrystals resulted in strong emission in the visible region upon excitation with a NIR laser (980 nm). A composite of BiPO4 nanocrystals and vanadate was prepared by the addition of vanadate source to BiPO4 nanocrystals. In the nanocomposite, the strong blue emission from Tm3+ ions via upconversion is nonradiatively transferred to BiVO4, resulting in the production of excitons. This in turn generates reactive oxygen species and efficiently degrades methylene blue dye in aqueous medium. The nanocomposite also shows high photocatalytic activity both under the visible region (0.010 min-1) and under the full solar spectrum (0.047 min-1). The results suggest that the photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite under both NIR as well as full solar irradiation is better compared to other reported nanocomposite photocatalysts. The choice of BiPO4 as the matrix for Ln3+ ions has been discussed in detail, as it plays an important role in the superior NIR photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite photocatalyst.