The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the early 1990's has revolutionized our thinking of post-transcriptional gene control. miRNAs are involved in the regulation of almost every cellular and developmental process in eukaryotic organisms. In the context of infection and immunity, miRNAs play critical roles controlling processes involved in pathogen clearance, while ensuring a rapid return to homeostasis. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the miRNAs that have been implicated in innate immunity and inflammation in mammals over the past decade. We discuss how most miRNAs can have dual activities on inflammation, suggesting that modulation of their activity for therapeutic purposes may be context-dependent.
- Innate immunity
- Toll-like receptors