A gold nanowire-integrated soft wearable system for dynamic continuous non-invasive cardiac monitoring

Shu Gong, Lim Wei Yap, Yuxin Zhang, Jinyuan He, Jialiang Yin, Faezeh Marzbanrad, David M. Kaye, Wenlong Cheng

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Blood pressure (BP) is a cardiovascular parameter which exhibits significant variability. Whilst continuous BP monitoring would be of significant clinical utility. This is particularly challenging outside the hospital environment. New wearable cuff-based and cuffless BP monitoring technologies provide some capacity, however they have a number of limitations including bulkiness, rigidity and discomfort, poor accuracy and motion artefact. Here, we report on a lightweight, user-friendly, non-invasive wearable cardiac sensing system based on deformation-insensitive conductive gold nanowire foam (G-foam) and pressure-sensitive resistive gold nanowire electronic skin (G-skin). The G-foam could serve as a new soft dry bioelectrode for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring; a new soft button-based G-skin design could avoid manual holding for continuous pulse recording. They could be integrated seamlessly with everyday bandage for facile wireless recording of ECG and artery pulses under real-word dynamic environments including walking, running, deep squatting, and jogging. Further machine learning algorithm was developed for estimation of systolic and diastolic BP, showing comparable accuracy to commercial cuff-based sphygmomanometer. The measured dynamic BP changes correlated well with the volunteer's daily activities, indicating the potential applications of our soft wearable systems for real-time diagnostics of cardiovascular functions in complex dynamic real-world setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114072
Number of pages9
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • Artery pulse monitoring
  • Cardiovascular diagnostics
  • E-skin
  • Electrocardiogram monitoring
  • Gold nanowire

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