A global survey on trends in advanced practice and specialisation in the pharmacy workforce

Ian Bates, Lina R. Bader, Kirsten Galbraith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Despite the increasingly complex care and demanding health challenges shaping pharmacy, little work has been carried out to understand the global status of advanced and/or specialised pharmacy practice scopes and the models in which they exist. This study aims to describe the current global status of initiatives relating to advancement of pharmacy practice. Methods: A global survey was conducted between January and May 2015 to collect country-level data from member organisations of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), and national-level contacts from regulatory, professional and government agencies or universities; data requests were sent to 109 countries. The collected data were triangulated (comparing multiple sources from single countries, e.g.), cleaned and analysed by descriptive and comparative statistics. Key findings: Full data sets from 48 countries and territories were obtained. The findings demonstrate varying systems of advanced pharmacy practice and specialisation often linked to income level. The study found that there are variations within terminology and definitions, frameworks for specialisation and advanced practice, professional recognition mechanisms and benefits across countries. Conclusions: This survey of 48 countries and territories was the first of its kind to describe the range of specialisation and professional recognition systems for advanced pharmacy practice worldwide. Despite the variance, it is clear from this global study that professional advancement and the recognition of advancement in practice are developing around the world and this could be due to the increasingly complex nature of pharmaceutical care delivery and a consequent need to be able to endorse professional capabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-181
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • advanced practice
  • extended practice
  • professional development
  • scope of practice
  • specialisation

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