Emulsion polymerization is the most widely used synthetic technique for fabricating polymeric particles. The interfacial tension generated with this technique limits the ability to tune the topology and chemistry of the resultant particles. We demonstrate a general emulsion interfacial polymerization approach that involves introduction of additional anchoring molecules surrounding the microdroplets to synthesize a large variety of Janus particles with controllable topological and chemical anisotropy. This strategy is based on interfacial polymerization mediated by an anchoring effect at the interface of microdroplets. Along the interface of the microdroplets, the diverse topology and surface chemistry features of the Janus particles can be precisely tuned by regulating the monomer type and concentration as well as polymerization time. This method is applicable to a wide variety of monomers, including positively charged, neutrally charged, and negatively charged monomers, thereby enriching the community of Janus particles.