A flow cell for transient voltammetry and in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium(II) tetracyanoquinodimethane

Jean-Pierre Veder, Ayman Nafady A Abdellah, Graeme Clarke, Ross Williams, Roland De Marco, Alan Bond

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13 Citations (Scopus)


An easy to fabricate and versatile cell that can be used with a variety of electrochemical techniques, also meeting the stringent requirement for undertaking cyclic voltammetry under transient conditions in in situ electrocrystallization studies and total external reflection X-ray analysis, has been developed. Application is demonstrated through an in situ synchrotron radiation-grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium (II)-tetracyanoquinodimethane material, Cd(TCNQ)(2). from acetonitrile (0.1 mol dm(-3) [NBu(4)][PF(6)]). Importantly, this versatile cell design makes SR-GIXRD suitable for almost any combination of total external reflection X-ray analysis (e.g., GIXRF and GIXRD) and electrochemical perturbation, also allowing its application in acidic, basic, aqueous, nonaqueous, low and high flow pressure conditions. Nevertheless, the cell design separates the functions of transient voltammetry and SR-GIXRD measurements, viz.. voltammetry is performed at high flow rates with a substantially distended window to minimize the IR (Ohmic) drop of the electrolyte, while SR-GIXRD is undertaken using stop-flow conditions with a very thin layer of electrolyte to minimize X-ray absorption and scattering by the solution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1546 - 1553
Number of pages8
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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