A Dose-finding Study of Metronomic Oral Vinorelbine in Combination With Oral Cyclophosphamide and Bevacizumab in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer

Giuseppina Sanna, Marta Pestrin, Erica Moretti, Chiara Biagioni, Irene De Santo, Stefano Gabellini, Francesca Galardi, Amelia McCartney, Laura Biganzoli

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Metronomic chemotherapy can induce disease control in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and has better safety profiles than conventional chemotherapy. Evidence suggests that cytotoxics can be anti-angiogenic in pre-clinical models and may have synergistic effects when combined with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies. Patients and Methods: Patients pretreated with ≥ 1 prior line of therapy for MBC received oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg daily in combination with oral vinorelbine at escalating doses of 20 mg (V20), 30 mg (V30), and 40 mg (V40) 3 times per week, and intravenous bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease were given the same regimen plus standard trastuzumab. Doses were escalated when 3 patients completed 3 treatment cycles of V20 and V30, without experiencing dose-limiting toxicities. The recommended dose was then tested in a further 6 patients. Circulating tumour cells and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured in 30 mL of whole blood samples at baseline, after cycle 1, and at the disease progression. Results: Fifteen patients were recruited from June 2013 to October 2015. The median age was 61 years (range, 29-72 years); 80% had estrogen receptor-positive and 33% had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease. At least 67% had visceral metastases, and 80% had received ≥ 2 lines of prior treatment. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at the 3 dose-levels, making V40 the recommended dose. Overall 8 (53%) patients developed grade 2 adverse events (arthralgia, n = 3 [20%]; asthenia, n = 2 [13%]; diarrhea, n = 2 [13%]; leukopenia, n = 2 [13%]). Bevacizumab was associated with grade 3 hypertension (n = 3 [20%]). Stable disease as best response was observed in 11 (73.3%) patients. The clinical benefit rate was 66.6% (10/15 patients). The median time to progression was 6.9 months. At baseline, CECs were more commonly detectable than circulating tumor cells; however, no statistical correlation was found between CEC kinetics and response. Conclusion: A metronomic vinorelbine dose of 40 mg combined with cyclophosphamide and bevacizumab is a promising treatment regimen in pretreated patients with MBC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e332-e339
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Breast Cancer
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-angiogenesis
  • Circulating endothelial cells
  • Cyclophosphamide bevacizumab
  • Metronomic chemotherapy
  • Oral vinorelbine

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