A design space exploration of Worlds in Miniature

Kurtis Danyluk, Barrett Ens, Bernhard Jenny, Wesley Willett

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Worlds-in-Miniature (WiMs) are interactive worlds within a world and combine the advantages of an input space, a cartographic map, and an overview+detail interface. They have been used across the extended virtuality spectrum for a variety of applications. Building on an analysis of examples of WiMs from the research literature we contribute a design space for WiMs based on seven design dimensions. Further, we expand upon existing defnitions of WiMs to provide a defnition that applies across the extended reality spectrum. We identify the design dimensions of size-scope-scale, abstraction, geometry, reference frame, links, multiples, and virtuality. Using our framework we describe existing Worlds-in-Miniature from the research literature and reveal unexplored research areas. Finally, we generate new examples of WiMs using our framework to fll some of these gaps. With our fndings, we identify opportunities that can guide future research into WiMs.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
EditorsPernille Bjørn, Steven Drucker
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781450380966
Publication statusPublished - 2021
EventInternational Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2021 - Online, Yokohama, Japan
Duration: 8 May 202113 May 2021
Conference number: 39th
https://dl.acm.org/doi/book/10.1145/3411763 (Proceedings)
https://dl.acm.org/doi/proceedings/10.1145/3411764 (Proceedings)


ConferenceInternational Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2021
Abbreviated titleCHI 2021
Internet address


  • Meta-analysis/literature survey
  • Virtual/augmented reality

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