A DCT-based Mod4 steganographic method

Kok Sheik Wong, Xiaojun Qi, Kiyoshi Tanaka

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31 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a novel Mod4 steganographic method in discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. Mod4 is a blind steganographic method. A group of 2 × 2 spatially adjacent quantized DCT coefficients (GQC) is selected as the valid message carrier. The modulus 4 arithmetic operation is then applied to the valid GQC to embed a pair of bits. When modification is required for data embedding, the shortest route modification scheme is applied to reduce distortion as compared to the ordinary direct modification scheme. Mod4 is capable in embedding information into both uncompressed and JPEG-compressed image. To compare Mod4 with other existing methods, carrier capacity, stego image quality, and results of blind steganalysis for 500 various images are shown. Visual comparison of three additional metrics is also presented to show the relative performance of Mod4 among other existing methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1251-1263
Number of pages13
JournalSignal Processing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • GQC
  • JPEG
  • Modulus arithmetic
  • Shortest route modification
  • Steganalysis
  • Steganography
  • vGQC

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