A current update on the distribution, morphological features, and genetic identity of the Southeast Asian mahseers, tor species

Faizul Jaafar, Uthairat Na-Nakorn, Prapansak Srisapoome, Thumronk Amornsakun, Thuy Yen Duong, Maria Mojena Gonzales-Plasus, Duc Huy Hoang, Ishwar S. Parhar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The king of rivers or mahseer comprises three genera: Tor, Neolissochilus, and Naziritor, under the Cyprinidae family. The Tor genus has been classified as the true mahseer due to the presence of a median lobe among the three genera. The Tor species are widely distributed across Southeast (SE) Asia, and 13 Tor species have been reported previously: Tor ater, Tor dongnaiensis, Tor douronensis, Tor laterivittatus, Tor mosal, Tor mekongensis, Tor putitora, Tor sinensis, Tor soro, Tor tambra, Tor tambroides, Tor tor and Tor yingjiangensis. However, the exact number of valid Tor species remains debatable. Different and unstandardized approaches of applying genetic markers in taxonomic identification and morphology variation within the same species have further widened the gap and ameliorated the instability of Tor species taxonomy. Therefore, synchronized and strategized research among Tor species researchers is urgently required to improve and fill the knowledge gap. This review is a current update of SE Asia’s Tor species, outlining their distribution, morphology, and genetic identification. In addition, the present review proposes that there are ten valid Tor species in the SE Asian region. This list will serve as a template and standard to improve the taxonomy of the SE Asian Tor species, which could serve as a basis to open new directions in Tor research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number286
Number of pages30
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Distribution
  • Genetic marker
  • Mahseer
  • Morphology
  • Southeast Asia
  • Tor

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