A critical review of brain and cognitive reserve in Huntington's disease

Maria V. Soloveva, Sharna D. Jamadar, Govinda Poudel, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The ‘reserve’ hypothesis posits that the brain undergoes structural and functional reorganisation to actively cope with brain damage or disease. Consistent with passive and active components of ‘reserve’ the brain moderates its biological substrates (brain reserve) and differentially changes the level of neural activity in tasks-specific networks and/or by recruiting additional non-task related brain regions (cognitive reserve) to optimise behavioural performance. How the ‘reserve’ hypothesis applies in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) remains unknown. We postulate that unless the ‘reserve’ hypothesis is tested empirically, it is impossible to draw firm conclusions about how task-related neural activity is providing a neuroplastic change in HD and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. We conclude that there is a pressing need to operationalise cognitive reserve, as well as incorporate different biological substrates into a model of ‘reserve’. We suggest that it is important to identify and embed potential neuroprotective modulating factors of ‘reserve’ in randomised controlled multi-domain non-pharmaceutical interventions to potentially enhance ‘reserve’ and thus preserve cognitive and psychosocial functioning in HD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-169
Number of pages15
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume88
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Keywords

  • Ageing models of compensation
  • Brain and cognitive reserve
  • Functional neuroimaging
  • Huntington's disease
  • Micro- and macro-structural neuroimaging
  • Network efficiency
  • Neural compensation
  • Psychosocial modulating factors
  • The ‘reserve’ hypothesis

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