A concomitant muscle injury does not worsen traumatic brain injury outcomes in mice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often involves multitrauma in which concurrent extracranial injury occurs. We previously demonstrated that a long bone fracture exacerbates neuroinflammation and functional outcomes in mice given a TBI. Whether other forms of concomitant peripheral trauma that are common in the TBI setting, such as skeletal muscle injury, have similar effects is unknown. As such, here we developed a novel mouse multitrauma model by combining a closed-skull TBI with a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury to investigate whether muscle injury affects TBI outcomes. Adult male mice were assigned to four groups: sham-TBI + sham-muscle injury (SHAM); sham-TBI + CTX-muscle injury (CTX); TBI + sham-muscle injury (TBI); TBI + CTX-muscle injury (MULTI). Some mice were euthanized at 24 h post-injury to assess neuroinflammation and cerebral edema. The remaining mice underwent behavioral testing after a 30-day recovery period, and were euthanized at 35 days post-injury for post-mortem analysis. At 24 h post-injury, both TBI and MULTI mice had elevated edema, increased expression of GFAP (i.e., a marker for reactive astrocytes), and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory chemokines. There was also an effect of injury on cytokine levels at 35 days post-injury. However, the TBI and MULTI mice did not significantly differ on any of the measures assessed. These initial findings suggest that a concomitant muscle injury does not significantly affect preclinical TBI outcomes. Future studies should investigate the combination of different injury models, additional outcomes, and other post-injury time points.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1089
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Dec 2018

Cite this

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title = "A concomitant muscle injury does not worsen traumatic brain injury outcomes in mice",
abstract = "Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often involves multitrauma in which concurrent extracranial injury occurs. We previously demonstrated that a long bone fracture exacerbates neuroinflammation and functional outcomes in mice given a TBI. Whether other forms of concomitant peripheral trauma that are common in the TBI setting, such as skeletal muscle injury, have similar effects is unknown. As such, here we developed a novel mouse multitrauma model by combining a closed-skull TBI with a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury to investigate whether muscle injury affects TBI outcomes. Adult male mice were assigned to four groups: sham-TBI + sham-muscle injury (SHAM); sham-TBI + CTX-muscle injury (CTX); TBI + sham-muscle injury (TBI); TBI + CTX-muscle injury (MULTI). Some mice were euthanized at 24 h post-injury to assess neuroinflammation and cerebral edema. The remaining mice underwent behavioral testing after a 30-day recovery period, and were euthanized at 35 days post-injury for post-mortem analysis. At 24 h post-injury, both TBI and MULTI mice had elevated edema, increased expression of GFAP (i.e., a marker for reactive astrocytes), and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory chemokines. There was also an effect of injury on cytokine levels at 35 days post-injury. However, the TBI and MULTI mice did not significantly differ on any of the measures assessed. These initial findings suggest that a concomitant muscle injury does not significantly affect preclinical TBI outcomes. Future studies should investigate the combination of different injury models, additional outcomes, and other post-injury time points.",
author = "Mujun Sun and Brady, {Rhys Daniel} and Poel, {Chris van der} and Danielle Apted and Semple, {Bridgette D} and Church, {Jarrod E} and O'Brien, {Terence J} and McDonald, {Stuart John} and Shultz, {Sandy R}",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "11",
doi = "10.3389/fneur.2018.01089",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Frontiers in Neurology",
issn = "1664-2295",
publisher = "Frontiers Media",

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A concomitant muscle injury does not worsen traumatic brain injury outcomes in mice. / Sun, Mujun; Brady, Rhys Daniel; Poel, Chris van der; Apted, Danielle ; Semple, Bridgette D; Church, Jarrod E; O'Brien, Terence J; McDonald, Stuart John; Shultz, Sandy R.

In: Frontiers in Neurology, Vol. 9, 1089, 11.12.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A concomitant muscle injury does not worsen traumatic brain injury outcomes in mice

AU - Sun, Mujun

AU - Brady, Rhys Daniel

AU - Poel, Chris van der

AU - Apted, Danielle

AU - Semple, Bridgette D

AU - Church, Jarrod E

AU - O'Brien, Terence J

AU - McDonald, Stuart John

AU - Shultz, Sandy R

PY - 2018/12/11

Y1 - 2018/12/11

N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often involves multitrauma in which concurrent extracranial injury occurs. We previously demonstrated that a long bone fracture exacerbates neuroinflammation and functional outcomes in mice given a TBI. Whether other forms of concomitant peripheral trauma that are common in the TBI setting, such as skeletal muscle injury, have similar effects is unknown. As such, here we developed a novel mouse multitrauma model by combining a closed-skull TBI with a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury to investigate whether muscle injury affects TBI outcomes. Adult male mice were assigned to four groups: sham-TBI + sham-muscle injury (SHAM); sham-TBI + CTX-muscle injury (CTX); TBI + sham-muscle injury (TBI); TBI + CTX-muscle injury (MULTI). Some mice were euthanized at 24 h post-injury to assess neuroinflammation and cerebral edema. The remaining mice underwent behavioral testing after a 30-day recovery period, and were euthanized at 35 days post-injury for post-mortem analysis. At 24 h post-injury, both TBI and MULTI mice had elevated edema, increased expression of GFAP (i.e., a marker for reactive astrocytes), and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory chemokines. There was also an effect of injury on cytokine levels at 35 days post-injury. However, the TBI and MULTI mice did not significantly differ on any of the measures assessed. These initial findings suggest that a concomitant muscle injury does not significantly affect preclinical TBI outcomes. Future studies should investigate the combination of different injury models, additional outcomes, and other post-injury time points.

AB - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often involves multitrauma in which concurrent extracranial injury occurs. We previously demonstrated that a long bone fracture exacerbates neuroinflammation and functional outcomes in mice given a TBI. Whether other forms of concomitant peripheral trauma that are common in the TBI setting, such as skeletal muscle injury, have similar effects is unknown. As such, here we developed a novel mouse multitrauma model by combining a closed-skull TBI with a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury to investigate whether muscle injury affects TBI outcomes. Adult male mice were assigned to four groups: sham-TBI + sham-muscle injury (SHAM); sham-TBI + CTX-muscle injury (CTX); TBI + sham-muscle injury (TBI); TBI + CTX-muscle injury (MULTI). Some mice were euthanized at 24 h post-injury to assess neuroinflammation and cerebral edema. The remaining mice underwent behavioral testing after a 30-day recovery period, and were euthanized at 35 days post-injury for post-mortem analysis. At 24 h post-injury, both TBI and MULTI mice had elevated edema, increased expression of GFAP (i.e., a marker for reactive astrocytes), and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory chemokines. There was also an effect of injury on cytokine levels at 35 days post-injury. However, the TBI and MULTI mice did not significantly differ on any of the measures assessed. These initial findings suggest that a concomitant muscle injury does not significantly affect preclinical TBI outcomes. Future studies should investigate the combination of different injury models, additional outcomes, and other post-injury time points.

U2 - 10.3389/fneur.2018.01089

DO - 10.3389/fneur.2018.01089

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Frontiers in Neurology

JF - Frontiers in Neurology

SN - 1664-2295

M1 - 1089

ER -