A comparison of two citrate anticoagulation regimens for continuous veno-venous hemofiltration

M. Egi, T. Naka, Rinaldo Bellomo, L. Cole, C. French, C. Trethewy, L. Wan, C. C. Langenberg, N. Fealy, I. Baldwin

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Aims: To assess the safety and efficacy of two different commercial citrate containing pre-filter replacement fluids during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) in patients with frequent filter clotting. Setting: Four intensive care units. Patients: Sixty-three critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF). Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: We used a commercial citrate fluid (citrate: 11 mmol/L -fluid A) as predilution replacement for CVVH. We then changed to a new commercial citrate fluid (citrate: 14 mmol/L-fluid B) as replacement fluid and performed statistical comparisons. Replacement fluid rate was fixed at 2,000 ml/hour. Results: Filter life was 12.2 hour with fluid A compared with 17.1 hour with fluid B on average (p=0.0001). Mean post filter ionized calcium concentration was 0.52 mmol/L with fluid A compared with 0.40 mmol/L with fluid B (p<0.0001). Citrate intolerance led to cessation of treatment in one patient with fluid A and one patient with fluid B. Overall ionized calcium levels were higher (A: 1.18 vs B: 1.13 mmol/L; p<0.0001) and bicarbonate was lower (A: 22.4 vs B: 24.5 mmol/L; p<0.0001) during treatment with fluid A. Alkalemia was seen in 10 patients treated with fluid A and 16 patients treated with fluid B (NS). Conclusions: We have developed a simple approach to regional citrate an ticoagulation for CVVH using a commercial citrate-containing fluid as replacement fluid. Increasing citrate concentration from 11 to 14 mmol/L increased filter life while maintaining relative safety and simplicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1211-1218
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Artificial Organs
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute renal failure
  • Anticoagulation
  • Calcium
  • Citrate
  • Critical illness
  • Hemofiltration
  • Magnesium
  • Renal replacement therapy

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