A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Stephen S Lim, Eric Theo Vos, Abraham D Flaxman, Goodarz Danaei, Kenji Shibuya, Heather Adair-Rohani, Mohammed Abdulaziz Al Mazroa, Marcus Armann, Hugh Ross Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Martin Aryee, Charles Atkinson, Loraine J Bacchus, Adil N Bahalim, Kalpana Balakrishnan, John Balmes, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Amanda Baxter, Michelle L Bell, Jed D Blore & 189 others Fiona Blyth, Carissa Bonner, Guilherme Borges, Rupert Bourne, Michel Boussinesq, Michael Brauer, Peter Brooks, Nigel G Bruce, Bert Brunekreef, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Chiara Bucello, Rachelle Buchbinder, Fiona Bull, Richard T Burnett, Tim E Byers, Bianca Calabria, Jonathan Carapetis, Emily Carnahan, Zoe Chafe, Fiona Charlson, Honglei Chen, Jian Shen Chen, Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng, Jennifer Christine Child, Aaron Cohen, K Ellicott Colsen, Benjamin Cowie, Sarah Darby, Susan Darling, Adrian Davis, Louisa Degenhardt, Frank Dentener, Don C Des Jarlais, Karen Devries, Mukash Dherani, Eric L Ding, E Ray Darsey, Timothy Driscoll, Karen Edmond, Suad Eltahir Ali, Rebecca E Engell, Patricia J Erwin, Saman Fahimi, Gail Falder, Farshad Farzadfar, Alize Ferrari, Mariel M Finucane, Seth Flaxman, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Greg Freedman, Michael K Freeman, Emmanuela Gakidou, Santu Ghosh, Edward Giovannucci, Gerhard Gmel, Kathryn Graham, Rebecca Grainger, Bridget Grant, David Gunnell, Hialy R Gutierrez, Wayne Hall, Hans W Hoek, Anthoony Hogan, H Dean Hosgood, Damian Hoy, Howard Hu, Bryan J Hubbell, Sally J Hutchings, Sydney E Ibeanusi, Gemma L Jacklyn, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Jost B Jonas, Haidong Kan, John A Kanis, Nicholas Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Yong-Ho Khang, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Jon-Paul Khoo, Cindy Kok, Francine Laden, Ratilah Lalloo, Qing Lan, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, James Leigh, Yang Li, John Kent Lin, Steven E Lipshultz, Stephanie London, Rafael Lozano, Yuan Lu, Joelle Mak, Reza Malekzadeh, Leslie Mallinger, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, Robin Marks, Randall Martin, Paul McGale, John McGrath, Sumi Mehta, Ziad A Memish, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Renata Micha, Catherine Michaud, Vinod Mishra, Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah, Ali A Mokdad, Lidia Morawska, Dariush Mozaffarian, Tasha Murphy, Mohsen Naghavi, Bruce Neal, Paul K Nelson, Joan Miquel Nolla, Rosana Norman, Casey Olives, Saad B Omer, Jessica Orchard, Richard Harry Osborne, Bart Ostro, Andrew Page, Kiran D Pandey, Charles D H Parry, Erin Passmore, Jayadeep Patra, Neil Pearce, Pamela M Pelizzari, Max Petzold, Michael R Philips, Dan Pope, C Arden Pope, John Powles, Mayuree Rao, Homie Razavi, Eva A Rehfuess, Jurgen T Rehm, Beate Ritz, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Carlyn Robinson, Jose A Rodriguez-Portales, Isabelle Romieu, Robin Room, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Ananya Roy, Lesley Rushton, Joshua Salomon, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Ella Sanman, Amir Sapkota, Soraya Seedat, Peilin Shi, Kevin Shield, Rupak Shivakoti, Gitanjali M Singh, David A Sleet, Emma Smith, Kirk R Smith, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Kyle Steenland, Heidi Stockl, Lars Jacob Stovner, Kurt Straif, Lahn Straney, George D Thurston, Jimmy H Tran, Rita Van Dingenen, Aaron von Donkelaar, J Lennert Veerman, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Robert Weintraub, Myrna Weissman, Richard A White, Harvey Whiteford, Steven T Wiersma, James D Wilkinson, Hywel C Williams, Warwick Williams, Nicholas Wilson, Anthony Woolf, Paul Yip, Jan M Zielinski, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Majid Ezzati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6149 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7?0 [95 uncertainty interval 6?2?7?7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?3 [5?5?7?0]), and alcohol use (5?5 [5?0?5?9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7?9 [6?8?9?4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7?0 [5?6?8?3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?1 [5?4?6?8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10?0 (95 UI 9?2?10?8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water and sanitation accounting for 0?9 (0?4?1?6) of global DALYs in 2010. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa childhood underweight, HAP, and non-exclusive and discontinued breastfeeding were the leading risks in 2010, while HAP was the leading risk in south Asia. The leading risk factor in Eastern Europe, most of Latin America, and southern sub-Saharan Africa in 2010 was alcohol use; in most of Asia, North Africa and Middle East, and central Europe it was high blood pressure. Despite declines, tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke remained the leading risk in high-income north America and western Europe. High body-mass index has increased globally and it is the leading risk in Australasia and southern Latin America, and also ranks high in other high-income regions, North Africa and Middle East, and Oceania.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2224 - 2260
Number of pages37
JournalThe Lancet
Volume380
Issue number9859
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Cite this

Lim, Stephen S ; Vos, Eric Theo ; Flaxman, Abraham D ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Shibuya, Kenji ; Adair-Rohani, Heather ; Al Mazroa, Mohammed Abdulaziz ; Armann, Marcus ; Anderson, Hugh Ross ; Andrews, Kathryn G ; Aryee, Martin ; Atkinson, Charles ; Bacchus, Loraine J ; Bahalim, Adil N ; Balakrishnan, Kalpana ; Balmes, John ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne ; Baxter, Amanda ; Bell, Michelle L ; Blore, Jed D ; Blyth, Fiona ; Bonner, Carissa ; Borges, Guilherme ; Bourne, Rupert ; Boussinesq, Michel ; Brauer, Michael ; Brooks, Peter ; Bruce, Nigel G ; Brunekreef, Bert ; Bryan-Hancock, Claire ; Bucello, Chiara ; Buchbinder, Rachelle ; Bull, Fiona ; Burnett, Richard T ; Byers, Tim E ; Calabria, Bianca ; Carapetis, Jonathan ; Carnahan, Emily ; Chafe, Zoe ; Charlson, Fiona ; Chen, Honglei ; Chen, Jian Shen ; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann ; Child, Jennifer Christine ; Cohen, Aaron ; Colsen, K Ellicott ; Cowie, Benjamin ; Darby, Sarah ; Darling, Susan ; Davis, Adrian ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Dentener, Frank ; Des Jarlais, Don C ; Devries, Karen ; Dherani, Mukash ; Ding, Eric L ; Darsey, E Ray ; Driscoll, Timothy ; Edmond, Karen ; Eltahir Ali, Suad ; Engell, Rebecca E ; Erwin, Patricia J ; Fahimi, Saman ; Falder, Gail ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Ferrari, Alize ; Finucane, Mariel M ; Flaxman, Seth ; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R ; Freedman, Greg ; Freeman, Michael K ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Ghosh, Santu ; Giovannucci, Edward ; Gmel, Gerhard ; Graham, Kathryn ; Grainger, Rebecca ; Grant, Bridget ; Gunnell, David ; Gutierrez, Hialy R ; Hall, Wayne ; Hoek, Hans W ; Hogan, Anthoony ; Hosgood, H Dean ; Hoy, Damian ; Hu, Howard ; Hubbell, Bryan J ; Hutchings, Sally J ; Ibeanusi, Sydney E ; Jacklyn, Gemma L ; Jasrasaria, Rashmi ; Jonas, Jost B ; Kan, Haidong ; Kanis, John A ; Kassebaum, Nicholas ; Kawakami, Norito ; Khang, Yong-Ho ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Khoo, Jon-Paul ; Kok, Cindy ; Laden, Francine ; Lalloo, Ratilah ; Lan, Qing ; Lathlean, Tim ; Leasher, Janet L ; Leigh, James ; Li, Yang ; Lin, John Kent ; Lipshultz, Steven E ; London, Stephanie ; Lozano, Rafael ; Lu, Yuan ; Mak, Joelle ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mallinger, Leslie ; Marcenes, Wagner ; March, Lyn ; Marks, Robin ; Martin, Randall ; McGale, Paul ; McGrath, John ; Mehta, Sumi ; Memish, Ziad A ; Mensah, George A ; Merriman, Tony R ; Micha, Renata ; Michaud, Catherine ; Mishra, Vinod ; Mohd Hanafiah, Khayriyyah ; Mokdad, Ali A ; Morawska, Lidia ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Murphy, Tasha ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Neal, Bruce ; Nelson, Paul K ; Nolla, Joan Miquel ; Norman, Rosana ; Olives, Casey ; Omer, Saad B ; Orchard, Jessica ; Osborne, Richard Harry ; Ostro, Bart ; Page, Andrew ; Pandey, Kiran D ; Parry, Charles D H ; Passmore, Erin ; Patra, Jayadeep ; Pearce, Neil ; Pelizzari, Pamela M ; Petzold, Max ; Philips, Michael R ; Pope, Dan ; Pope, C Arden ; Powles, John ; Rao, Mayuree ; Razavi, Homie ; Rehfuess, Eva A ; Rehm, Jurgen T ; Ritz, Beate ; Rivara, Frederick P ; Roberts, Thomas ; Robinson, Carlyn ; Rodriguez-Portales, Jose A ; Romieu, Isabelle ; Room, Robin ; Rosenfeld, Lisa C ; Roy, Ananya ; Rushton, Lesley ; Salomon, Joshua ; Sampson, Uchechukwu ; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia ; Sanman, Ella ; Sapkota, Amir ; Seedat, Soraya ; Shi, Peilin ; Shield, Kevin ; Shivakoti, Rupak ; Singh, Gitanjali M ; Sleet, David A ; Smith, Emma ; Smith, Kirk R ; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C ; Steenland, Kyle ; Stockl, Heidi ; Stovner, Lars Jacob ; Straif, Kurt ; Straney, Lahn ; Thurston, George D ; Tran, Jimmy H ; Dingenen, Rita Van ; Donkelaar, Aaron von ; Veerman, J Lennert ; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi ; Weintraub, Robert ; Weissman, Myrna ; White, Richard A ; Whiteford, Harvey ; Wiersma, Steven T ; Wilkinson, James D ; Williams, Hywel C ; Williams, Warwick ; Wilson, Nicholas ; Woolf, Anthony ; Yip, Paul ; Zielinski, Jan M ; Lopez, Alan D ; Murray, Christopher J L ; Ezzati, Majid. / A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. In: The Lancet. 2012 ; Vol. 380, No. 9859. pp. 2224 - 2260.
@article{7950640fa1054a5e88de14dc95b321b5,
title = "A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010",
abstract = "In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7?0 [95 uncertainty interval 6?2?7?7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?3 [5?5?7?0]), and alcohol use (5?5 [5?0?5?9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7?9 [6?8?9?4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7?0 [5?6?8?3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?1 [5?4?6?8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10?0 (95 UI 9?2?10?8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water and sanitation accounting for 0?9 (0?4?1?6) of global DALYs in 2010. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa childhood underweight, HAP, and non-exclusive and discontinued breastfeeding were the leading risks in 2010, while HAP was the leading risk in south Asia. The leading risk factor in Eastern Europe, most of Latin America, and southern sub-Saharan Africa in 2010 was alcohol use; in most of Asia, North Africa and Middle East, and central Europe it was high blood pressure. Despite declines, tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke remained the leading risk in high-income north America and western Europe. High body-mass index has increased globally and it is the leading risk in Australasia and southern Latin America, and also ranks high in other high-income regions, North Africa and Middle East, and Oceania.",
author = "Lim, {Stephen S} and Vos, {Eric Theo} and Flaxman, {Abraham D} and Goodarz Danaei and Kenji Shibuya and Heather Adair-Rohani and {Al Mazroa}, {Mohammed Abdulaziz} and Marcus Armann and Anderson, {Hugh Ross} and Andrews, {Kathryn G} and Martin Aryee and Charles Atkinson and Bacchus, {Loraine J} and Bahalim, {Adil N} and Kalpana Balakrishnan and John Balmes and Suzanne Barker-Collo and Amanda Baxter and Bell, {Michelle L} and Blore, {Jed D} and Fiona Blyth and Carissa Bonner and Guilherme Borges and Rupert Bourne and Michel Boussinesq and Michael Brauer and Peter Brooks and Bruce, {Nigel G} and Bert Brunekreef and Claire Bryan-Hancock and Chiara Bucello and Rachelle Buchbinder and Fiona Bull and Burnett, {Richard T} and Byers, {Tim E} and Bianca Calabria and Jonathan Carapetis and Emily Carnahan and Zoe Chafe and Fiona Charlson and Honglei Chen and Chen, {Jian Shen} and Cheng, {Andrew Tai-Ann} and Child, {Jennifer Christine} and Aaron Cohen and Colsen, {K Ellicott} and Benjamin Cowie and Sarah Darby and Susan Darling and Adrian Davis and Louisa Degenhardt and Frank Dentener and {Des Jarlais}, {Don C} and Karen Devries and Mukash Dherani and Ding, {Eric L} and Darsey, {E Ray} and Timothy Driscoll and Karen Edmond and {Eltahir Ali}, Suad and Engell, {Rebecca E} and Erwin, {Patricia J} and Saman Fahimi and Gail Falder and Farshad Farzadfar and Alize Ferrari and Finucane, {Mariel M} and Seth Flaxman and Fowkes, {Francis Gerry R} and Greg Freedman and Freeman, {Michael K} and Emmanuela Gakidou and Santu Ghosh and Edward Giovannucci and Gerhard Gmel and Kathryn Graham and Rebecca Grainger and Bridget Grant and David Gunnell and Gutierrez, {Hialy R} and Wayne Hall and Hoek, {Hans W} and Anthoony Hogan and Hosgood, {H Dean} and Damian Hoy and Howard Hu and Hubbell, {Bryan J} and Hutchings, {Sally J} and Ibeanusi, {Sydney E} and Jacklyn, {Gemma L} and Rashmi Jasrasaria and Jonas, {Jost B} and Haidong Kan and Kanis, {John A} and Nicholas Kassebaum and Norito Kawakami and Yong-Ho Khang and Shahab Khatibzadeh and Jon-Paul Khoo and Cindy Kok and Francine Laden and Ratilah Lalloo and Qing Lan and Tim Lathlean and Leasher, {Janet L} and James Leigh and Yang Li and Lin, {John Kent} and Lipshultz, {Steven E} and Stephanie London and Rafael Lozano and Yuan Lu and Joelle Mak and Reza Malekzadeh and Leslie Mallinger and Wagner Marcenes and Lyn March and Robin Marks and Randall Martin and Paul McGale and John McGrath and Sumi Mehta and Memish, {Ziad A} and Mensah, {George A} and Merriman, {Tony R} and Renata Micha and Catherine Michaud and Vinod Mishra and {Mohd Hanafiah}, Khayriyyah and Mokdad, {Ali A} and Lidia Morawska and Dariush Mozaffarian and Tasha Murphy and Mohsen Naghavi and Bruce Neal and Nelson, {Paul K} and Nolla, {Joan Miquel} and Rosana Norman and Casey Olives and Omer, {Saad B} and Jessica Orchard and Osborne, {Richard Harry} and Bart Ostro and Andrew Page and Pandey, {Kiran D} and Parry, {Charles D H} and Erin Passmore and Jayadeep Patra and Neil Pearce and Pelizzari, {Pamela M} and Max Petzold and Philips, {Michael R} and Dan Pope and Pope, {C Arden} and John Powles and Mayuree Rao and Homie Razavi and Rehfuess, {Eva A} and Rehm, {Jurgen T} and Beate Ritz and Rivara, {Frederick P} and Thomas Roberts and Carlyn Robinson and Rodriguez-Portales, {Jose A} and Isabelle Romieu and Robin Room and Rosenfeld, {Lisa C} and Ananya Roy and Lesley Rushton and Joshua Salomon and Uchechukwu Sampson and Lidia Sanchez-Riera and Ella Sanman and Amir Sapkota and Soraya Seedat and Peilin Shi and Kevin Shield and Rupak Shivakoti and Singh, {Gitanjali M} and Sleet, {David A} and Emma Smith and Smith, {Kirk R} and Stapelberg, {Nicolas J C} and Kyle Steenland and Heidi Stockl and Stovner, {Lars Jacob} and Kurt Straif and Lahn Straney and Thurston, {George D} and Tran, {Jimmy H} and Dingenen, {Rita Van} and Donkelaar, {Aaron von} and Veerman, {J Lennert} and Lakshmi Vijayakumar and Robert Weintraub and Myrna Weissman and White, {Richard A} and Harvey Whiteford and Wiersma, {Steven T} and Wilkinson, {James D} and Williams, {Hywel C} and Warwick Williams and Nicholas Wilson and Anthony Woolf and Paul Yip and Zielinski, {Jan M} and Lopez, {Alan D} and Murray, {Christopher J L} and Majid Ezzati",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8",
language = "English",
volume = "380",
pages = "2224 -- 2260",
journal = "The Lancet",
issn = "0140-6736",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "9859",

}

Lim, SS, Vos, ET, Flaxman, AD, Danaei, G, Shibuya, K, Adair-Rohani, H, Al Mazroa, MA, Armann, M, Anderson, HR, Andrews, KG, Aryee, M, Atkinson, C, Bacchus, LJ, Bahalim, AN, Balakrishnan, K, Balmes, J, Barker-Collo, S, Baxter, A, Bell, ML, Blore, JD, Blyth, F, Bonner, C, Borges, G, Bourne, R, Boussinesq, M, Brauer, M, Brooks, P, Bruce, NG, Brunekreef, B, Bryan-Hancock, C, Bucello, C, Buchbinder, R, Bull, F, Burnett, RT, Byers, TE, Calabria, B, Carapetis, J, Carnahan, E, Chafe, Z, Charlson, F, Chen, H, Chen, JS, Cheng, AT-A, Child, JC, Cohen, A, Colsen, KE, Cowie, B, Darby, S, Darling, S, Davis, A, Degenhardt, L, Dentener, F, Des Jarlais, DC, Devries, K, Dherani, M, Ding, EL, Darsey, ER, Driscoll, T, Edmond, K, Eltahir Ali, S, Engell, RE, Erwin, PJ, Fahimi, S, Falder, G, Farzadfar, F, Ferrari, A, Finucane, MM, Flaxman, S, Fowkes, FGR, Freedman, G, Freeman, MK, Gakidou, E, Ghosh, S, Giovannucci, E, Gmel, G, Graham, K, Grainger, R, Grant, B, Gunnell, D, Gutierrez, HR, Hall, W, Hoek, HW, Hogan, A, Hosgood, HD, Hoy, D, Hu, H, Hubbell, BJ, Hutchings, SJ, Ibeanusi, SE, Jacklyn, GL, Jasrasaria, R, Jonas, JB, Kan, H, Kanis, JA, Kassebaum, N, Kawakami, N, Khang, Y-H, Khatibzadeh, S, Khoo, J-P, Kok, C, Laden, F, Lalloo, R, Lan, Q, Lathlean, T, Leasher, JL, Leigh, J, Li, Y, Lin, JK, Lipshultz, SE, London, S, Lozano, R, Lu, Y, Mak, J, Malekzadeh, R, Mallinger, L, Marcenes, W, March, L, Marks, R, Martin, R, McGale, P, McGrath, J, Mehta, S, Memish, ZA, Mensah, GA, Merriman, TR, Micha, R, Michaud, C, Mishra, V, Mohd Hanafiah, K, Mokdad, AA, Morawska, L, Mozaffarian, D, Murphy, T, Naghavi, M, Neal, B, Nelson, PK, Nolla, JM, Norman, R, Olives, C, Omer, SB, Orchard, J, Osborne, RH, Ostro, B, Page, A, Pandey, KD, Parry, CDH, Passmore, E, Patra, J, Pearce, N, Pelizzari, PM, Petzold, M, Philips, MR, Pope, D, Pope, CA, Powles, J, Rao, M, Razavi, H, Rehfuess, EA, Rehm, JT, Ritz, B, Rivara, FP, Roberts, T, Robinson, C, Rodriguez-Portales, JA, Romieu, I, Room, R, Rosenfeld, LC, Roy, A, Rushton, L, Salomon, J, Sampson, U, Sanchez-Riera, L, Sanman, E, Sapkota, A, Seedat, S, Shi, P, Shield, K, Shivakoti, R, Singh, GM, Sleet, DA, Smith, E, Smith, KR, Stapelberg, NJC, Steenland, K, Stockl, H, Stovner, LJ, Straif, K, Straney, L, Thurston, GD, Tran, JH, Dingenen, RV, Donkelaar, AV, Veerman, JL, Vijayakumar, L, Weintraub, R, Weissman, M, White, RA, Whiteford, H, Wiersma, ST, Wilkinson, JD, Williams, HC, Williams, W, Wilson, N, Woolf, A, Yip, P, Zielinski, JM, Lopez, AD, Murray, CJL & Ezzati, M 2012, 'A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010', The Lancet, vol. 380, no. 9859, pp. 2224 - 2260. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8

A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. / Lim, Stephen S; Vos, Eric Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Danaei, Goodarz; Shibuya, Kenji; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Al Mazroa, Mohammed Abdulaziz; Armann, Marcus; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Andrews, Kathryn G; Aryee, Martin; Atkinson, Charles; Bacchus, Loraine J; Bahalim, Adil N; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Baxter, Amanda; Bell, Michelle L; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona; Bonner, Carissa; Borges, Guilherme; Bourne, Rupert; Boussinesq, Michel; Brauer, Michael; Brooks, Peter; Bruce, Nigel G; Brunekreef, Bert; Bryan-Hancock, Claire; Bucello, Chiara; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bull, Fiona; Burnett, Richard T; Byers, Tim E; Calabria, Bianca; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carnahan, Emily; Chafe, Zoe; Charlson, Fiona; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jian Shen; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann; Child, Jennifer Christine; Cohen, Aaron; Colsen, K Ellicott; Cowie, Benjamin; Darby, Sarah; Darling, Susan; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dentener, Frank; Des Jarlais, Don C; Devries, Karen; Dherani, Mukash; Ding, Eric L; Darsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Timothy; Edmond, Karen; Eltahir Ali, Suad; Engell, Rebecca E; Erwin, Patricia J; Fahimi, Saman; Falder, Gail; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ferrari, Alize; Finucane, Mariel M; Flaxman, Seth; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R; Freedman, Greg; Freeman, Michael K; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ghosh, Santu; Giovannucci, Edward; Gmel, Gerhard; Graham, Kathryn; Grainger, Rebecca; Grant, Bridget; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Hialy R; Hall, Wayne; Hoek, Hans W; Hogan, Anthoony; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian; Hu, Howard; Hubbell, Bryan J; Hutchings, Sally J; Ibeanusi, Sydney E; Jacklyn, Gemma L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Jonas, Jost B; Kan, Haidong; Kanis, John A; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kawakami, Norito; Khang, Yong-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khoo, Jon-Paul; Kok, Cindy; Laden, Francine; Lalloo, Ratilah; Lan, Qing; Lathlean, Tim; Leasher, Janet L; Leigh, James; Li, Yang; Lin, John Kent; Lipshultz, Steven E; London, Stephanie; Lozano, Rafael; Lu, Yuan; Mak, Joelle; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mallinger, Leslie; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn; Marks, Robin; Martin, Randall; McGale, Paul; McGrath, John; Mehta, Sumi; Memish, Ziad A; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Micha, Renata; Michaud, Catherine; Mishra, Vinod; Mohd Hanafiah, Khayriyyah; Mokdad, Ali A; Morawska, Lidia; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Murphy, Tasha; Naghavi, Mohsen; Neal, Bruce; Nelson, Paul K; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Norman, Rosana; Olives, Casey; Omer, Saad B; Orchard, Jessica; Osborne, Richard Harry; Ostro, Bart; Page, Andrew; Pandey, Kiran D; Parry, Charles D H; Passmore, Erin; Patra, Jayadeep; Pearce, Neil; Pelizzari, Pamela M; Petzold, Max; Philips, Michael R; Pope, Dan; Pope, C Arden; Powles, John; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Rehfuess, Eva A; Rehm, Jurgen T; Ritz, Beate; Rivara, Frederick P; Roberts, Thomas; Robinson, Carlyn; Rodriguez-Portales, Jose A; Romieu, Isabelle; Room, Robin; Rosenfeld, Lisa C; Roy, Ananya; Rushton, Lesley; Salomon, Joshua; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sanman, Ella; Sapkota, Amir; Seedat, Soraya; Shi, Peilin; Shield, Kevin; Shivakoti, Rupak; Singh, Gitanjali M; Sleet, David A; Smith, Emma; Smith, Kirk R; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Steenland, Kyle; Stockl, Heidi; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Straif, Kurt; Straney, Lahn; Thurston, George D; Tran, Jimmy H; Dingenen, Rita Van; Donkelaar, Aaron von; Veerman, J Lennert; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Weintraub, Robert; Weissman, Myrna; White, Richard A; Whiteford, Harvey; Wiersma, Steven T; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Warwick; Wilson, Nicholas; Woolf, Anthony; Yip, Paul; Zielinski, Jan M; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Ezzati, Majid.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 380, No. 9859, 2012, p. 2224 - 2260.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

AU - Lim, Stephen S

AU - Vos, Eric Theo

AU - Flaxman, Abraham D

AU - Danaei, Goodarz

AU - Shibuya, Kenji

AU - Adair-Rohani, Heather

AU - Al Mazroa, Mohammed Abdulaziz

AU - Armann, Marcus

AU - Anderson, Hugh Ross

AU - Andrews, Kathryn G

AU - Aryee, Martin

AU - Atkinson, Charles

AU - Bacchus, Loraine J

AU - Bahalim, Adil N

AU - Balakrishnan, Kalpana

AU - Balmes, John

AU - Barker-Collo, Suzanne

AU - Baxter, Amanda

AU - Bell, Michelle L

AU - Blore, Jed D

AU - Blyth, Fiona

AU - Bonner, Carissa

AU - Borges, Guilherme

AU - Bourne, Rupert

AU - Boussinesq, Michel

AU - Brauer, Michael

AU - Brooks, Peter

AU - Bruce, Nigel G

AU - Brunekreef, Bert

AU - Bryan-Hancock, Claire

AU - Bucello, Chiara

AU - Buchbinder, Rachelle

AU - Bull, Fiona

AU - Burnett, Richard T

AU - Byers, Tim E

AU - Calabria, Bianca

AU - Carapetis, Jonathan

AU - Carnahan, Emily

AU - Chafe, Zoe

AU - Charlson, Fiona

AU - Chen, Honglei

AU - Chen, Jian Shen

AU - Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann

AU - Child, Jennifer Christine

AU - Cohen, Aaron

AU - Colsen, K Ellicott

AU - Cowie, Benjamin

AU - Darby, Sarah

AU - Darling, Susan

AU - Davis, Adrian

AU - Degenhardt, Louisa

AU - Dentener, Frank

AU - Des Jarlais, Don C

AU - Devries, Karen

AU - Dherani, Mukash

AU - Ding, Eric L

AU - Darsey, E Ray

AU - Driscoll, Timothy

AU - Edmond, Karen

AU - Eltahir Ali, Suad

AU - Engell, Rebecca E

AU - Erwin, Patricia J

AU - Fahimi, Saman

AU - Falder, Gail

AU - Farzadfar, Farshad

AU - Ferrari, Alize

AU - Finucane, Mariel M

AU - Flaxman, Seth

AU - Fowkes, Francis Gerry R

AU - Freedman, Greg

AU - Freeman, Michael K

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PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7?0 [95 uncertainty interval 6?2?7?7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?3 [5?5?7?0]), and alcohol use (5?5 [5?0?5?9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7?9 [6?8?9?4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7?0 [5?6?8?3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?1 [5?4?6?8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10?0 (95 UI 9?2?10?8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water and sanitation accounting for 0?9 (0?4?1?6) of global DALYs in 2010. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa childhood underweight, HAP, and non-exclusive and discontinued breastfeeding were the leading risks in 2010, while HAP was the leading risk in south Asia. The leading risk factor in Eastern Europe, most of Latin America, and southern sub-Saharan Africa in 2010 was alcohol use; in most of Asia, North Africa and Middle East, and central Europe it was high blood pressure. Despite declines, tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke remained the leading risk in high-income north America and western Europe. High body-mass index has increased globally and it is the leading risk in Australasia and southern Latin America, and also ranks high in other high-income regions, North Africa and Middle East, and Oceania.

AB - In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7?0 [95 uncertainty interval 6?2?7?7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?3 [5?5?7?0]), and alcohol use (5?5 [5?0?5?9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7?9 [6?8?9?4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7?0 [5?6?8?3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6?1 [5?4?6?8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10?0 (95 UI 9?2?10?8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water and sanitation accounting for 0?9 (0?4?1?6) of global DALYs in 2010. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa childhood underweight, HAP, and non-exclusive and discontinued breastfeeding were the leading risks in 2010, while HAP was the leading risk in south Asia. The leading risk factor in Eastern Europe, most of Latin America, and southern sub-Saharan Africa in 2010 was alcohol use; in most of Asia, North Africa and Middle East, and central Europe it was high blood pressure. Despite declines, tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke remained the leading risk in high-income north America and western Europe. High body-mass index has increased globally and it is the leading risk in Australasia and southern Latin America, and also ranks high in other high-income regions, North Africa and Middle East, and Oceania.

UR - http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)61766-8/abstract

U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8

DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8

M3 - Article

VL - 380

SP - 2224

EP - 2260

JO - The Lancet

JF - The Lancet

SN - 0140-6736

IS - 9859

ER -