A comparative analysis between antibiotic- and nonantibiotic-associated delayed cutaneous adverse drug reactions

Jason A. Trubiano, Ar Kar Aung, Nguyen Mary, Sasha Fehily, Linda Graudins, Heather Cleland, Alex Padiglione, Anton Y. Peleg

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19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The difference in clinical presentation, causality assessments, and outcomes of patients with delayed antibiotic-associated cutaneous adverse drug reactions (AA-cADR) and nonantibiotic-associated (NA)-cADR is ill defined.

Objective: We examined the etiology of AA-cADR, with regard to the type of antibiotic exposure, allergy labeling, and patient outcomes, in comparison with NA-cADR.

Methods: A retrospective observational inpatient cohort study of cADR was performed from January 2004 to August 2014. Patients were divided into AA-cADR and NA-cADR groups for analysis. cADR was defined as erythema multiforme, fixed drug eruption, acute generalized erythematous pustulosis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), drug-associated linear IgA disease, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Results: Of the 84 patients with cADR, 48% were AA-cADR. Male sex (60% vs 32%, P = .004), median length of stay (14.5 vs 11 days, P = .05), median Charlson comorbidity index (3 vs 1, P = .03), and inpatient mortality (20% vs 5%, P = .04) were higher in AA-cADR compared with NA-cADR. The median drug latency was lower in AA-cADR (6 vs 20 days, P = .001). Sulfonamide antibiotics and glycopeptides were implicated in 20% of AA-cADR. DRESS was more frequently reported in AA-cADR. After cADR diagnosis, further antibiotic therapy was administered in 64% of patients, higher in AA-cADR (75%, 30 of 40) compared with NA-cADR (55%, 24 of 44) (P = .06). Fluoroquinolones (53% vs 21%, P = .02), glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin; 70% vs 38%, P = .05), and carbapenems (33% vs 13%, P = .11) were used more commonly in AA-cADR.

Conclusions: Antibiotics were the cause of cADR requiring hospital admission in 48% of episodes, and were associated with longer length of stay, higher age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index, shorter drug latency, and mortality. In AA-cADR, glycopeptide and sulfonamide antibiotic exposure predominated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1187 - 1193
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Volume4
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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