Background: Current health‐care models are ill-equipped for managing people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated the impact of a new diabetes and kidney disease service (DKS) on hospitalisation, mortality, clinical and patient relevant outcomes.
Methods: Longitudinal analyses of adult patients with diabetes and CKD (stages 3a to 5) were performed using outpatient and hospitalisation data from January 2015 to October 2018. Data was handled according to whether patients received the DKS intervention (n = 196) or standard care (n = 7511). The DKS provided patient-centered, coordinated multi-disciplinary assessment and management of patients. Primary analyses examined hospitalisation and mortality rates between the two groups. Secondary analyses evaluated the impact of the DKS on clinical target attainment, changes in eGFR, HbA1c, self-care and patient activation at 12 months.
Results: Patients who received the intervention had a higher hospitalisation rate (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.20; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.30; P < 0.0001), shorter median length of stay (2 days [interquartile range (IQR), 6–1] versus 4 days [IQR 9-1]; P < 0.0001) and lower all-cause mortality rate (IRR 0.4; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64; P < 0.0001) than those who received standard care. Improvements in overall self-care (MD 2.26, 95% CI 0.83, 3.69; P < 0.001) and in statin use, foot and eye examination were observed. Mean eGFR did not significantly change after 12 months (MD 1.30, 95% CI -4.17, 1.67; P = 0.40) mls/min per 1.73 m2. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by 0.40, 0.35, 0.34 and 0.23% at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up respectively.
Conclusions: A co-designed, person-centred integrated model of care improved all-cause mortality, kidney function, glycaemic control and self-care for patients with diabetes and CKD.