A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

John M Atack, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Kate L Fox, Joseph A Jurcisek, Kenneth L Brockman, Tyson A Clark, Matthew Boitano, Peter M Power, Freda E C Jen, Alastair G McEwan, Sean M Grimmond, Arnold L Smith, Stephen J Barenkamp, Jonas Korlach, Lauren O Bakaletz, Michael P Jennings

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Abstract

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7828
Number of pages12
JournalNature Communications
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Cite this

Atack, J. M., Srikhanta, Y. N., Fox, K. L., Jurcisek, J. A., Brockman, K. L., Clark, T. A., Boitano, M., Power, P. M., Jen, F. E. C., McEwan, A. G., Grimmond, S. M., Smith, A. L., Barenkamp, S. J., Korlach, J., Bakaletz, L. O., & Jennings, M. P. (2015). A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Nature Communications, 6, [7828]. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8828