A Bi-national needs assessment to identify and prioritise procedures in paediatric surgery for simulation-based training

Damir Ljuhar, Leizl Joy Nayahangan, Ram Nataraja, Debra Nestel

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Simulation-based education (SBE) has led to significant changes in healthcare education. However, SBE has often been based on available resources and local expertise rather than a systematic approach to curriculum development. The aim of this study was to perform a bi-national needs assessment to identify and prioritise procedures in a paediatric surgery curriculum that can be supported using SBE. Method: A modified 3-round Delphi technique was used to gather consensus from education leaders and trainees in paediatric surgery in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand (ANZ). Round 1 identified all procedures a newly specialised paediatric surgeon should be able to perform. In Round 2, each procedure was explored for the need for SBE using the Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation (CAMES) Needs-Assessment Formula (NAF). This pre-prioritised list from Round 2 was sent back to participants for final exclusion and ranking in Round 3. Results 88 participants were identified and invited. From 174 procedures identified in Round 1, 71 procedures were grouped and categorised for Round 2 using the CAMES NAF. In Round 3, 17 procedures were eliminated resulting in 54 procedures. Appendicectomy, inguinal herniotomy, and central venous access were the highest rank procedures after prioritisation in Round 3. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the NAF score and the prioritised ranking, as well as between consultants and trainees (r = 0.92 in Round 2 and 0.98 in Round 3). Conclusion: The prioritised list represents a consensus document decided upon by education leaders and stakeholders in paediatric surgery. These procedures should be an integral part of the SBE of paediatric surgeons in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1520-1526
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Curriculum development
  • Delphi technique
  • Needs assessment
  • Paediatric surgery
  • Simulation-based education

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