In August, 2013, a 5-year-old Indigenous girl accompanied her mother to her diabetes outreach appointment in a remote community in Australia. Towards the end of her consultation, the mother mentioned concerns about non-healing sores on her daughter s thighs. Noting the child s obesity, two random blood glucose level tests were done, showing concentrations of 19?2 mmol/L and 18?7 mmol/L. A urine dipstick test was negative for ketones. The girl s mother reported that the sores had been present for roughly 5 weeks, and bedwetting for the past 12 months. There was no history of diarrhoea or vomiting. The child was born macrosomic (4?5 kg) at 38 weeks by caesarean section after a pregnancy complicated by poorly controlled gestational diabetes. Her diet was high in large portions of refined carbohydrates and simple sugars. There was a strong family history of type 2 diabetes.