Objective: We undertook this study to examine the X chromosome complement in participants with systemic sclerosis (SSc) as well as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Methods: The participants met classification criteria for the diseases. All participants underwent single-nucleotide polymorphism typing. We examined X and Y single-nucleotide polymorphism heterogeneity to determine the number of X chromosomes. For statistical comparisons, we used χ2 analyses with calculation of 95% confidence intervals. Results: Three of seventy men with SSc had 47,XXY (P = 0.0001 compared with control men). Among the 435 women with SSc, none had 47,XXX. Among 709 men with polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM/DM), seven had 47,XXY (P = 0.0016), whereas among the 1783 women with PM/DM, two had 47,XXX. Of 147 men with inclusion body myositis (IBM), six had 47,XXY, and 1 of the 114 women with IBM had 47,XXX. For each of these myositis disease groups, the excess 47,XXY and/or 47,XXX was significantly higher compared with in controls as well as the known birth rate of Klinefelter syndrome or 47,XXX. Conclusion: Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is associated with SSc and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, similar to other autoimmune diseases with type 1 interferon pathogenesis, namely, systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome.