3′-NADP and 3′-NAADP, two metabolites formed by the bacterial type iii effector AvrRxo

Felix Schuebel, Andrea Rocker, Daniel Edelmann, Julia Schessner, Clara Brieke, Anton Meinhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


An arsenal of effector proteins is injected by bacterial pathogens into the host cell or its vicinity to increase virulence. The commonly used top-down approaches inferring the toxic mechanism of individual effector proteins from the host's phenotype are often impeded by multiple targets of different effectors as well as by their pleiotropic effects. Here we describe our bottom-up approach, showing that the bacterial type III effector AvrRxo1 of plant pathogens is an authentic phosphotransferase that produces two novel metabolites by phosphorylating nicotinamide/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide at the adenosine 3′-hydroxyl group. Both products of AvrRxo1, 3′-NADP and 3′-nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (3′-NAADP), are substantially different from the ubiquitous co-enzyme 2′-NADP and the calcium mobilizer 2′-NAADP. Interestingly, 3′-NADP and 3′-NAADP have previously been used as inhibitors or signaling molecules but were regarded as "artificial" compounds so far. Our findings now necessitate a shift in thinking about the biological importance of 3′-phosphorylated NAD derivatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22868-22880
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number44
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • enzyme inhibitor
  • enzyme mechanism
  • NAD biosynthesis
  • second messenger
  • secretion
  • toxin
  • type III secretion system (T3SS)

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