3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF): A metabolite identified after consumption of fish oil and fish

Andrew J. Sinclair, L. Xu, Y. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) is a known metabolite of furan fatty acids and was first referred to as a urofuran fatty acid, as it was found in urine of humans and other species after consumption of furan fatty acids or foods containing furan fatty acids. More recently, CMPF has been identified as a highly prominent metabolite following the consumption of fish oil, fish oil fractions and diets rich in fish, and can be regarded as biomarker of oilrich fish or fish oil intakes. As furan fatty acids are known to occur in fish and fish oil (at a low level), it is possible that the CMPF in plasma arises from these furan fatty acids. On a structural basis, this is a likely explanation rather than the CMPF being an actual metabolite of long-chain marine omega-3 fatty acids. Recent studies in high fat-fed mice given purified CMPF suggest that CMPF might contribute to the improved metabolic effects observed following consumption of long-chain marine omega-3 fatty acids but much is still to be known about the relationships between CMPF and health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-157
Number of pages5
JournalNutrition Bulletin
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF)
  • Fish oil
  • Furan fatty acids
  • Oil-rich fish
  • Omega-3 fatty acids

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