β-Aminopeptidases: Insight into enzymes without a known natural substrate

Marietta John-White, James Gardiner, Priscilla Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Geoffrey Dumsday

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

β-Aminopeptidases have the unique capability to hydrolyze N-terminal β-amino acids, with varied preferences for the nature of β-amino acid side chains. This unique capability makes them useful as biocatalysts for synthesis of β-peptides and to kinetically resolve β-peptides and amides for the production of enantiopure β-amino acids. To date, six β-aminopeptidases have been discovered and functionally characterized, five from Gram-negative bacteria and one from a fungus, Aspergillus. Here we report on the purification and characterization of an additional four β-aminopeptidases, one from a Gram-positive bacterium, Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (BapAMs), one from a yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica (BapAγlip), and two from Gram-negative bacteria isolated from activated sludge identified as Burkholderia spp. (BapABcA5 and BapABcC1). The genes encoding β-aminopeptidases were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. The β-aminopeptidases were produced as inactive preproteins that underwent selfcleavage to form active enzymes comprised of two different subunits. The subunits, designated α and β, appeared to be tightly associated, as the active enzyme was recovered after immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification, even though only the α-subunit was 6-histidine tagged. The enzymes were shown to hydrolyze chromogenic substrates with the N-terminal L-configurations β-homo-Gly (βhGly) and β3-homo-Leu (β3hLeu) with high activities. These enzymes displayed higher activity with H-βhGly-p-nitroanilide (H-βhGlypNA) than previously characterized enzymes from other microorganisms. These data indicate that the new β-aminopeptidases are fully functional, adding to the toolbox of enzymes that could be used to produce β-peptides. Overexpression studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa also showed that the β-aminopeptidases may play a role in some cellular functions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00318-19
Number of pages20
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume85
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

Keywords

  • Enzymes
  • β-amino acids
  • β-aminopeptidases
  • β-peptides

Cite this

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abstract = "β-Aminopeptidases have the unique capability to hydrolyze N-terminal β-amino acids, with varied preferences for the nature of β-amino acid side chains. This unique capability makes them useful as biocatalysts for synthesis of β-peptides and to kinetically resolve β-peptides and amides for the production of enantiopure β-amino acids. To date, six β-aminopeptidases have been discovered and functionally characterized, five from Gram-negative bacteria and one from a fungus, Aspergillus. Here we report on the purification and characterization of an additional four β-aminopeptidases, one from a Gram-positive bacterium, Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (BapAMs), one from a yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica (BapAγlip), and two from Gram-negative bacteria isolated from activated sludge identified as Burkholderia spp. (BapABcA5 and BapABcC1). The genes encoding β-aminopeptidases were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. The β-aminopeptidases were produced as inactive preproteins that underwent selfcleavage to form active enzymes comprised of two different subunits. The subunits, designated α and β, appeared to be tightly associated, as the active enzyme was recovered after immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification, even though only the α-subunit was 6-histidine tagged. The enzymes were shown to hydrolyze chromogenic substrates with the N-terminal L-configurations β-homo-Gly (βhGly) and β3-homo-Leu (β3hLeu) with high activities. These enzymes displayed higher activity with H-βhGly-p-nitroanilide (H-βhGlypNA) than previously characterized enzymes from other microorganisms. These data indicate that the new β-aminopeptidases are fully functional, adding to the toolbox of enzymes that could be used to produce β-peptides. Overexpression studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa also showed that the β-aminopeptidases may play a role in some cellular functions.",
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β-Aminopeptidases : Insight into enzymes without a known natural substrate. / John-White, Marietta; Gardiner, James; Johanesen, Priscilla; Lyras, Dena; Dumsday, Geoffrey.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 85, No. 15, e00318-19, 08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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T2 - Insight into enzymes without a known natural substrate

AU - John-White, Marietta

AU - Gardiner, James

AU - Johanesen, Priscilla

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AU - Dumsday, Geoffrey

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N2 - β-Aminopeptidases have the unique capability to hydrolyze N-terminal β-amino acids, with varied preferences for the nature of β-amino acid side chains. This unique capability makes them useful as biocatalysts for synthesis of β-peptides and to kinetically resolve β-peptides and amides for the production of enantiopure β-amino acids. To date, six β-aminopeptidases have been discovered and functionally characterized, five from Gram-negative bacteria and one from a fungus, Aspergillus. Here we report on the purification and characterization of an additional four β-aminopeptidases, one from a Gram-positive bacterium, Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (BapAMs), one from a yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica (BapAγlip), and two from Gram-negative bacteria isolated from activated sludge identified as Burkholderia spp. (BapABcA5 and BapABcC1). The genes encoding β-aminopeptidases were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. The β-aminopeptidases were produced as inactive preproteins that underwent selfcleavage to form active enzymes comprised of two different subunits. The subunits, designated α and β, appeared to be tightly associated, as the active enzyme was recovered after immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification, even though only the α-subunit was 6-histidine tagged. The enzymes were shown to hydrolyze chromogenic substrates with the N-terminal L-configurations β-homo-Gly (βhGly) and β3-homo-Leu (β3hLeu) with high activities. These enzymes displayed higher activity with H-βhGly-p-nitroanilide (H-βhGlypNA) than previously characterized enzymes from other microorganisms. These data indicate that the new β-aminopeptidases are fully functional, adding to the toolbox of enzymes that could be used to produce β-peptides. Overexpression studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa also showed that the β-aminopeptidases may play a role in some cellular functions.

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