Over 25% of the Australian continent is covered by savannas, which are significant for grazing, cultural heritage and wilderness value. They provide crucial ecosystem services but are vulnerable to climate change and variability, especially precipitation. This program will assess how Australian savanna systems function (carbon and water cycles) in the present, how sensitive they have been to past climate variability and how they may respond to future change? We identify gaps in models used to project climate and improve them to dynamically generate current, past and future savanna vegetation patterns and responses. Our models will provide capacity for managers to account for the consequences of climate change on ecosystem viability.