Adaptive evolution can be constrained when patterns of selection differ between the sexes. Experiments using model organisms provide strong evidence for adaptive constraints due to sex differences in selection. Outside of these model systems, sex-specific selection estimates are difficult to obtain because methods for estimating selection are not easily applied to natural populations. This proposal outlines a broadly applicable approach for estimating sex-specific selection, which is based on an extension the theory of local adaptation with gene flow. Experiments, using a clinally variable Drosophila population from Eastern Australia, will
provide the first tests of the new theory.