Diseases of the lung are a major cause of death in adults, children and newborn infants. Our capacity to reduce the burden of these diseases is limited by the inability to image the lung, particularly the small airways, in affected patients. This project will develop a novel phase contrast X-ray imaging technique to non-invasively study the lungs of small animals at birth. Using these images we will develop mathematical models that allow the calculation of air volumes and the prediction of alveolar size distributions within specific regions of lung tissue. This may lead to improved strategies for managing newborn infants, as well as improving the management of lung diseases in adults.