Formulation development and evaluation of Ginkgo biloba phytosome for improving the bioavailability of extracts

  • Chee Wun, How (Primary Chief Investigator (PCI))
  • Nair, Rajesh Sreedharan (Chief Investigator (CI))
  • Yann Jen, Goh (Partner Investigator (PI))
  • Mohd Zabidi, Nazihah binti (Partner Investigator (PI))

Project: Research

Project Details

Project Description

Herbal extracts have a long history of complementary medicinal usage, comprising a myriad of beneficial pharmacological active compounds with a wide range of solubility in water. The Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) tree has been in existence for millions of years. Still, its medicinal value has only been widely recognized in the last few decades. Reports suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaves and seeds extract improves cognitive function, relieves anxiety and depression, tinnitus, improves vision, improve blood flow, and reduces inflammation. The key constituents of Ginkgo leaf extract are flavonoids and terpene lactones, 24% and 6%, respectively. The active constituents of Ginkgo biloba have shown robust pharmacological effects when tested in vitro. However, limited in vivo absorption of these compounds severely restricts the scope of possible clinical applications. Lipid carriers significantly improve the bioavailability of phytoconstituents, and in particular, phytosomes have gained increasing popularity in recent years. They are lipid carrier system that involves the complexation of phytoconstituents with phospholipids and can enhance the oral bioavailability of phytoconstituents. The preparation method could utilize green nanotechnology, it is environment friendly, and the excipients chosen are innoxious to human health. This project aims to develop Ginkgo biloba phytosomes and evaluate their bioavailability compared to the Ginkgo biloba extract. This is a collaborative research project between Monash University Malaysia and Herbal Revival Sdn Bhd. The Herbal Revival Sdn Bhd is one of the leading herbal and nutritional supplement manufacturers in Malaysia, with the flagship Thomson brand of products. They complement this project by providing research funding, expertise in Ginkgo biloba analysis, and supplying Ginkgo biloba extract for the study. Collaboration between Monash University Malaysia and Herbal Revival Sdn Bhd is for the mutual benefit of enhancing Ginkgo Biloba's applications.

Short titleGinkgo biloba phytosome
Effective start/end date3/01/242/01/25


  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Phytoconstituents
  • Phytosomes
  • Flavonoids
  • Terpene lactones
  • Bioavailability