We will address the formidable challenge of understanding and predicting climate extremes for Australia. Via a critical mass of researchers, new data, innovative modelling, collaboration, a graduate program, and early career researcher mentoring we will transform Australia’s capacity to predict climate extremes. Annually, climate extremes now cost Australia up to $4 billion but are set to intensify over coming decades. Our blue-sky research will focus on discovery of processes that explain the behaviour of present and future climate extremes. Our impact and legacy will be assured via partnerships with key sectors of the Australian economy and discoveries that enable evidence-based planning for extremes that will enhance national resilience.